Sources for: There are no standards!
As the saying goes, the best thing about standards is there are so many to choose from.
- Canada has “Closed-captioning standards and protocol for Canadian English-language broadcasters” (PDF) by the Canadian Association of Broadcasters.
- The U.S. has the Captioning Key (PDF) from the Described and Captioned Media Program. As such, it is merely the opinion of that program.
- The U.K. has “Guidance on Standards for .”
None of these is a tested independent standard. None is consistently followed by most or all broadcasters or captioners.